the simile in lines 21 22 primarily serves to illustrate

The principal means for indicating continuing misperceptions are the characters’ own ill-judged or misconceived words, the poet’s indication of the direction in which events are actually moving, scenes in which the will of Zeus becomes clear, direct comments on the wishes of characters, and similes. ———. In no other passage is the power of the largest expeditionary force in Greek legend made so explicit, with the names of heroes from all parts of the Greek world joined in one panoramic display. Epic simile, also called Homeric simile, an extended simile often running to several lines, used typically in epic poetry to intensify the heroic stature of the subject and to serve as decoration. The completely opposed tones of the two passages show the degree to which similes can be developed to follow the needs of each narrative scene. Mnemosyne 53:641–61. It is common for warriors to be compared to insects—in more warlike contexts, bees or wasps.109 Here the insects are flies, and this basic subject is extended by a series of details that make this scene the most peaceful and nonthreatening image drawn from the insect simileme: these flies only buzz as they circle. 19.518). This section on book 2 of the Iliad appeared in an earlier form in Rabel 2005:21–58. While fire is a common simileme for a fighting warrior, Hector perhaps attracts this formulaic phrase because of his driving intention to burn the ships; see Whitman 1958:128–53 and Janko 1992 on 53. Homer and the Resources of Memory: Some Applications of Cognitive Theory to the Iliad and the Odyssey. Arion 6:279–324. Likewise, 23.117: Again the poet uses the elements of cutting, a cutting implement, the oak trees, and the mountain.37 Each scene seems derived in its motifs, and occasionally in its phrasing, from the same model as the tree similes. At line 512 Apollo sends Aeneas, now completely cured, back to the battlefield. Mattes, W. 1958. Segal, C. 1962. Calypso’s island is a paradise, filled with a variety of trees and flowers, birds and fountains, odors and music.106 Opposed to this lovely area where nature freely pours forth her gifts is the sea, where nature threatens to overwhelm puny, terrified mortals. on 46–47: "What is important is that we have a text whose essence lies in being performed, and which gives us ample information on its oral composition." At Ody. 1992. I am arguing for an understandable building of a theme through the six sections by one poet. Throughout the Iliad Hector is regarded as a warrior whose bravery will be fatal. In addition, the presentation of the Shield is complex. In general terms the characters in the book stake both their own lives and the lives of others on their judgments of events; yet the plan of Achilles collapses, Patroclus’ natural desires seduce and mislead him even to his death, and the constructions and boasts of Hector are hopelessly wrong. 126. 97. 1989. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. Similes provide important clues to the poet’s larger design. To emphasize the savage quality of his attack, Homer sketches a contrasting lyrical background:57, This mix of pastoral nature and bloodshed is extended when Achilles suddenly encounters Lycaon, a warrior that he had previously captured and sold into slavery; on the earlier occasion Achilles came upon him at night in his father’s orchard as he was cutting young shoots from a wild fig tree (36–38).59 Now Achilles is so astounded to find him on the battlefield that he wonders openly whether all the Trojans slain by him will soon begin to rise from the underworld (56–63). 22.301, which is repeated in Odysseus’ challenge to Eurymachus for an even, nondestructive contest in the countryside (Ody. Three other similes in this unit, however, are ambivalent; they not only emphasize the success of the Greek effort but also reveal the events of this book as inextricable parts of the plan of Zeus. American Journal of Philology 120:485–501. These reminders of the two contending gods are reinforced by the sudden appearance of an eagle (821ff. Stanley 1993:75 also comments on the structural importance of 506–11, which contains the darkness spread by Ares. 2. In both of the extended lion similes the description presents the helplessness of the victims before the lion’s power. In peaceful scenes the tone of the simile usually matches the narrative: Proteus among his seals is likened to a shepherd among his sheep; Nausicaa among her handmaidens is like Artemis sporting in the mountains; and Odysseus’ men gather around him like calves around a mother cow (Ody. Given that Hector has been viewed as the proper opponent for Achilles from the moment in book 1 when Achilles insisted that only his strength defended the Greeks (1.240–44), the immediate pairing with Hector raises Patroclus’ status. For a comparison of the elements of divine participation in books 5 and 8, see Reinhardt 1961:138–49; he finds book 8 parallel to book 5, but similar motifs have a focus and intensity that they lack in the earlier book. Even though he slaughters many Trojans, his similes present the events as in a mirror where the images are major distortions of the crucial realities in the narrative. In studying the interdependency of the similes and their larger narrative contexts—thus, how a simile fits into its "book"—I have tried to select the books where the number of similes is the greatest. Cambridge, U.K. 139–55. They can function independently because each is based on discrete areas of the traditional storytelling material. ", 49. 7. 1985. Homer therefore uses these two suitors to present a single moment of battle as he begins to develop his theme, the united power of Odysseus and his allies. Yet the similes are a wonderfully subtle and flexible device to enhance and bring into focus the essential features of that narrative. The closest parallels are 5.499 and 13.334. 4: "At the end he can do nothing with his fate except know it. Royal Power and the Achaean Assembly at Iliad 2.84–393. The poet’s task is to make these three quite similar incidents seem big. 38. Cambridge, U.K. Mancuso, H. 1915. Austin. Frame Semantics. ———. The use of a simile is typical, but each scene is individually suited to its context (Fenik 1968:33–34). Achilles remains uncompromising and stiff-necked, hard and cruel to a degree that will make him an inhuman monster, a war machine created as the perfected product of a perverse code. Apollo enters Troy to plan the final deception of the book; he rouses Agenor, whom Achilles now chases in his insatiable pursuit of glory. Because the book is designed to contrast these two attitudes, most similes are drawn from the extreme options within the similemes. Fieldwork on Homer. Although book 12 presents strong efforts by both sides in the battle, at the end the Trojans finally break through the Greek defensive wall.3 There are enough. In the course of the storm he confronts death and suffering and learns to work with nature and respect it. 112. In book 2 the phrase "here and/or there" seems a sign of weak leadership: see 90, 397, 462, and 476 (all in similes). Nagler, M. N. 1967. See especially Bassett 1938:187–93; Redfield 1994, chaps. The strength of the opposing warriors becomes the dominant force guiding the battle. Second, in book 15 when the Trojans are on the verge of burning the Greek ships, thus fulfilling the plan of Zeus and putting crucial pressure on Achilles (592ff. There will still remain a variety of meanings attached to the words and phrases in a simile, all of which must be coordinated to determine the poet’s meaning. As Idomeneus emerges fully armed, he gleams like lightning brandished by Zeus from Olympus (242).20 This lightning is specifically stated to be a sign to mortals—and, indeed, the whole first section of book 13 is a sign that strength is returning to the Greeks, slowly but perceptibly. Finally, the ambiguity and confusion prominent in this book are enhanced by the use of sequential similes. I am assuming that the following is the correct reading: "The wound increases the lion’s wrath, and the shepherd no longer defends the sheep, but he (the shepherd) lurks around the sheep pens and fears the open areas. 59. 299, 15.271, 15.381, 16.752, 20.164, and 21.573. Traditional Signs and Homeric Art. The second study is rooted in the mixture of traditional materials present to the poet every time he considers adding a simile to his narrative. Book 11 contains more similes than any other book in the Homeric poems, and they are densely packed; on average there is a simile every nineteen lines throughout the first two sections of the book. Die Gleichnisse Homers und die Bildkinst seiner Zeit. 24. Stanley analyzes them as signs of a late switch from orality to a written text.27 Heiden shifts the focus from narrative moments to the completion of a significant structure: "The placement of marked ‘book divisions’ in the Iliad follows a consistent pattern. 45. 78. For recent studies of the Shield see Austin 1975:115–28; Andersen 1976; Atchity 1977:160–72; Taplin 1980:1–21; Lynn-George 1988:174–200; Hubbard 1992; Stanley 1993; Dubel 1995; Becker 1990; Redfield 1995:186–203; Stambury-O’Donnell 1995; Nagy 1997; Moog-Grünewald 2001; Snodgrass 1998:40–44; Edwards 1991:200–209; Alden 2000: 48–73; Scully 2003. 114. Patroklos: Gedanken über Homers Dichtung und Gestalten. 1987. 20. It is easy to respond to each simile as though it were a small, individually composed lyric. The focus in scene and simile stays on the river/harbor (8, 13, and 25); cowering and fear unite narrative and simile (14, 24, and 29). Classical Antiquity 12:1–29. 20. When the action in one book has had a large effect on the ongoing narrative, this is often marked by a response at the beginning of the next book, e.g., book 9: the Trojan advance causes Agamemnon to hold a meeting; book 13: Poseidon enters the battle in support of the Greeks after Hector breaks through the wall; book 17: Menelaus moves to protect Patroclus’ body after Apollo has killed him. At the outset of book 5 Zeus declares that Odysseus is fated to see his friends and to return to his palace on Ithaca (41–42).104 He also receives the aid of Ino, who protects him as he heads for the Phaeacian shore, and Athena smooths his way while he is involved in the storm: Yet though Odysseus is shielded during the storm, he has no means of knowing it.105 Hermes had informed Calypso that the hero is fated to return to Ithaca, but she did not report these words to him and even attempted to sow suspicion by saying: Odysseus is compelled to build his own raft, an act implying that he must earn his way home relying on his own wits.

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