They provide a detailed narration of the conflicts between Vlad and the Transylvanian Saxons, showing that they originated "in the literary minds of the Saxons".  For instance, the editions published in Nuremberg in 1499 and in Strasbourg in 1500 depict Vlad dining at a table surrounded by dead or dying people on poles..  They describe Vlad as a "demented psychopath, a sadist, a gruesome murderer, a masochist", worse than Caligula and Nero. Mehmed launched a campaign against Wallachia to replace Vlad with Vlad's younger brother, Radu. Some in the scholarly community have suggested that Bram Stoker’s Dracula character was based on Vlad.  John Hunyadi (who had become the regent-governor of Hungary in 1446) broke into Wallachia in November 1447.  However, the Wallachians "missed the court of the sultan himself" and attacked the tents of the viziers Mahmut Pasha and Isaac. For Dracula, see, "Aspecte ale relaţiilor matrimoniale munteano-maghiare din secolele XIV-XV [Aspects of the Hungarian-Wallachian matrimonial relations of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries]", The Librarian: Curse of the Judas Chalice, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vlad_II_Dracul&oldid=957569463, Burials at Dealu Monastery, Viforâta (Dâmboviţa County), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 May 2020, at 13:56.  Vlad Dracul also fathered illegitimate children. , Stories about Vlad's brutal acts began circulating during his lifetime.  During the ensuing negotiations, Vlad demanded the expulsion or punishment of all Wallachian refugees from Brașov.  Vlad also broke into Transylvania and plundered the villages around Brașov and Sibiu.  Vlad found out the sultan's "deceit and trickery", captured Hamza and Katabolinos, and had them executed. He was the second son of Vlad Dracul, who became the ruler of Wallachia in 1436. His sobriquet Dracula (meaning “son of Dracul”) was derived from the Latin draco (“dragon”) after his father’s induction into the Order of the Dragon, created by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund for the defense of Christian Europe against the Ottoman Empire. , Most Romanian artists have regarded Vlad as a just ruler and a realistic tyrant who punished criminals and executed unpatriotic boyars to strengthen the central government. , Vlad had two wives, according to modern specialists. Vlad and his younger brother, Radu, were held as hostages in the Ottoman Empire in 1442 to secure their father's loyalty. Vlad II (Romanian: Vlad al II-lea), also known as Vlad Dracul (Vlad al II-lea Dracul) or Vlad the Dragon (before 1395 – November 1447), was Voivode of Wallachia from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. Vlad was held in captivity in Visegrád from 1463 to 1475.  He was portrayed among the witnesses of Saint Andrew's martyrdom in a 15th-century painting, displayed in the Belvedere in Vienna.  However, the stories emphasizing Vlad's cruelty are to be treated with caution because his brutal acts were very probably exaggerated (or even invented) by the Saxons.  He had to accept that the Ottomans had captured the fortress of Giurgiu on the Danube and strengthened it. He made peace with the Ottoman Empire in 1446 or 1447, which contributed to the deterioration of his relationship with Hunyadi.  She survived Vlad Dracul, and first married Pál Suki, then János Erdélyi.  In his work published in 1896, Vlad Țepeș and the German and Russian Narratives, he concluded that the Romanians should be ashamed of Vlad, instead of presenting him as "a model of courage and patriotism".  Radu sent messengers to the Wallachians, reminding them that the sultan could again invade their country. Vlad the Impaler, in full Vlad III Dracula or Romanian Vlad III Drăculea, also called Vlad III or Romanian Vlad Țepeș, (born 1431, Sighișoara, Transylvania [now in Romania]—died 1476, north of present-day Bucharest, Romania), voivode (military governor, or prince) of Walachia (1448; 1456–1462; 1476) whose cruel methods of punishing his enemies gained notoriety in 15th-century Europe. Of these he impaled some and burned others. , The mass murders that Vlad carried out indiscriminately and brutally would most likely amount to acts of genocide and war crimes by current standards. , After the Ottoman army left Wallachia, Vlad offered Albert of Habsburg to set the burghers who had been captured at Sebeș free, but the king (who regarded them traitors) refused his offer.  Vlad fled from Târgoviște, but he was captured and killed in the marshes at Bălteni.  Stephen of Moldavia was wounded during the siege of Chilia and returned to Moldavia before Vlad came to the fortress.  Outnumbered by the enemy, Vlad adopted a scorched earth policy and retreated towards Târgoviște. Vlad Dracule was born into a life of the Supernatural; his father a Vampire in a long line of Vampires descended from Judas, the original Vampire.  He sought military assistance from Corvinus, declaring that he had broken the peace with the sultan "for the honor" of the king and the Holy Crown of Hungary and "for the preservation of Christianity and the strengthening of the Catholic faith". In 1442 Vlad and his younger brother were sent to the court of Ottoman Sultan Murad II as collateral to assure the sultan that their father, in a reversal of his previous position, would support Ottoman policies. , Upon the death of his father and elder brother, Vlad became a potential claimant to Wallachia.  Stoker's main source, Wilkinson, who accepted the reliability of the German stories, described Vlad as a wicked man.  He was held in captivity in Gallipoli.  At Sebeș, Vlad convinced the leaders of the town to give in without resistance, promising to protect their property if they accompanied him to Wallachia. In Russia, popular stories suggested that Vlad was able to strengthen central government only through applying brutal punishments, and a similar view was adopted by most Romanian historians in the 19th century.  Vlad gave asylum to more than 11,000 Bulgarians who had rebelled against the Ottomans, assisting them to cross the Danube into Wallachia.  Chalkokondyles stated that Vlad "quickly effected a great change and utterly revolutionized the affairs of Wallachia" through granting the "money, property, and other goods" of his victims to his retainers. Consequently, Stoker borrowed the name and "scraps of miscellaneous information" about the history of Wallachia when writing his book about Count Dracula.  He intervened in the fight for the Moldavian throne in favor of Roman II of Moldavia in July 1447. Works containing the stories about Vlad's cruelty were published in Low German in the Holy Roman Empire before 1480. Rosetti reported: "Under the tombstone attributed to Vlad there was no tomb.  However, Sigismund did not assist him to seize Wallachia. , The Cantacuzino Chronicle was the first Romanian historical work to record a tale about Vlad the Impaler, narrating the impalement of the old boyars of Târgoviște for the murder of his brother, Dan.  He urges Vlad to return from the grave and to annihilate the enemies of the Romanian nation:.  The picture depicts "a strong, cruel, and somehow tortured man" with "large, deep-set, dark green, and penetrating eyes", according to Florescu.  The Ottoman and Wallachian troops broke into Hungary at Orșova.  This sobriquet is connected to the impalement that was his favorite method of execution. "Vlad Țepeș" redirects here.  The papal legate, Niccolo Modrussiense, had already written about such stories to Pope Pius II in 1462.  Vlad had to pledge that he would not support the enemies of the Ottoman Empire and he would pay an annual tribute and send 500 Wallachian boys to serve as janissaries in the sultan's army. , Alexander Aldea died in autumn 1436, enabling Vlad Dracul to seize Wallachia with Hungarian support. , Vlad's eldest sons, Mircea and Vlad Dracula, were first mentioned in a charter of Vlad on 20 January 1437. Vlad III built the fortress of Bucharest—the first of many fortifications—with the aim of holding back the Turks who were threatening the existence of the Walachian state.…. You know that King Matthias has sent me and when I came to Țara Bârsei the officials and councilors of Brașov and the old men of Țara Bârsei cried to us with broken hearts about the things which Dracula, our enemy, did; how he did not remain faithful to our Lord, the king, and had sided with the [Ottomans].  He also sent secret instructions to Hamza, bey of Nicopolis, to capture Vlad after he crossed the Danube. Hunyadi launched a military campaign against the Ottomans in the autumn of 1448, and Vladislav accompanied him. We are unable to do this because an emissary from Nicopolis came to us ... and said with great certainty that [Murad II had defeated Hunyadi]. , Vlad left Buda for Poland without Sigismund's authorization in early 1423, but was captured before reaching the border.  Hunyadi made Vladislav II (son of Vlad Dracul's cousin, Dan II) the ruler of Wallachia. , Basarab Laiotă returned to Wallachia with Ottoman support, and Vlad died fighting against them in late December 1476 or early January 1477.  During the siege of Giurgu, two iron rings of a large bombard suddenly broke, killing two soldiers, because Vlad, who was in the command of the fire, did not allow the bombard to cool down between blows.
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