Assessing the Impact of Cyanuric Acid on Bather’s Risk of Gastrointestinal Illness at Swimming Pools. Cyanuric acid (CYA) is well known in the pool business. 0000000016 00000 n 0000085280 00000 n Additionally, with enzymes, chlorine levels can be minimal while maintaining a strong ORP. 0000003489 00000 n CYA provides is a huge benefit to chlorine. Cyanuric acid (CYA) is well known in the pool business. As long as chlorine is holding onto the raft, it’s protected from sunlight. At 7.5 pH, half the chlorine is strong HOCl, and the other half is weak OCl-. Not only does chlorine have to overcome the oxidant demand before sanitization can happen, there is approximately a 7.5% chlorine reduction factor with cyanuric acid against algae. The easiest and most affordable way to reduce cyanuric acid is to drain the pool—at least partially. These calculi were composed of uric acid (a normal waste product in human urine) and melamine. 0000003538 00000 n Cyanuric Acid Facts. Understanding CYA is a cornerstone of what we teach, and there is a growing body of research available online1. To accurately calculate the LSI, we need to know the carbonate alkalinity, which requires removing the cyanurate alkalinity from the total alkalinity. It looks like this: TA ppm - (CYA ppm x [CYA correction factor @ pH of the water]) = Carbonate Alkalinity, TA ppm - (CYA ppm ÷ 3) = Carbonate Alkalinity. ORP sensors are probes that instantly measure the conductivity (in millivolts, mV) of water. 2019, 11, 1314. These stabilized chlorines have about 50-58% CYA in their formulas. While this site attempts to provide information that may be relevant to you, no guarantees are made that some relevant information will not be missed. Cyanuric acid is available as a granular solid and as a liquid (sodium cyanurate). Commercially produced melamine may contain structural analogues, such as cyanuric acid, ammelide and ammeline. Because CYA actually contributes to total alkalinity (it's called cyanurate alkalinity). Just input your pH, measured total alkalinity and CYA, and all of this equation is factored in automatically. 0000055933 00000 n For the most part, CYA levels can remain very stable if you’re not adding more of it to the water. 298 0 obj<>stream If you’re a chemist or cyanuric acid expert, please weigh in and contact us. 0000153579 00000 n The last example shows us how trichlor pools tend to be more aggressive–not only because of trichlor's low pH, but because of accumulated CYA's severe impact on the LSI. ; Meyer, E.M.; Pickens, S.R. When attached to CYA, however, chlorine is protected from sunlight. Five things to know about Cyanuric Acid (CYA), Calcium: The Most Misunderstood Chemistry in the Pool Business, ORP and LSI: The Future of Water Chemistry. The cyanuric acid molecule is a hexagon with alternating Nitrogen and Carbon atoms. What is the limit for CYA? For more information, visit www.taylortechnologies.com. When it needs to leave the raft to oxidize or kill a germ, chlorine simply lets go of the raft…and another chlorine molecule will take it’s place and grab the raft. 0000000816 00000 n ; Suppes, L.M. It's overstabilization. The higher the CYA, the more aggressive the water. Pools have been operated the same way for so long; changing the way we think about water can be a good thing. When water evaporates, CYA stays behind and stays in the water for a long, long time. Well, according to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), it’s 15 parts-per-million. But that’s not an excuse for ignoring the CDC’s mandate. However, as the cyanuric acid levels increase, they will have an effect on the total alkalinity test result. We DO know, however, that even small amounts of CYA can protect the vast majority of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is the strong, killing form of chlorine: Source: The Chlorine/CYA Relationship and Implications for Nitrogen Trichloride, by Richard Falk. 0000005654 00000 n 0000002334 00000 n 273 0 obj <> endobj So let’s put this formula into the real world. Chlorine used to be added daily up until the discovery of cyanuric acid in 1956. If you have 100ppm CYA, your new minimum to stay ahead of algae growth is approximately 7.5ppm chlorine. trailer Don't worry though, the Orenda App's LSI Calculator takes care of all of this math for you. We know the Nitrogen-chlorine (N-Cl) bond is weak because the chlorine attached still shows up in a free chlorine test. There are some products that can reduce CYA as well, but like any chemistry, there are reactions for every action. Dosing a CYA properly is a matter of knowing how much free available chlorine (FAC) you want protected, and how many gallons of water are in the pool. Better to be safe and prepared than be shut down by the health department. Cyanuric Acid (CYA), also called stabilizer or conditioner, protects chlorine from sunlight. We at Orenda recommend a little as possible (30ppm or less, ideally). This limit was decided for practical reasons. 0000003806 00000 n It’s very simple: chlorine stabilizers (like CYA) slow the rate that free chlorine kills pathogens. So what can we, as industry professionals, do to comply with this new CYA regulation? Sodium cyanurate was tested in several short- … xref 0000003908 00000 n The problem is not stabilization of chlorine. Studies show that sunlight can be wipe out chlorine by 75-90% in a matter of two hours. That may not be a severe enough example. On the right chart, the percentage of HOCl plummets to about 3%, meaning about 97% of chlorine is bound to CYA as an isocyanurate. CYA impacts water in so many ways, we would be doing a disservice to the industry to ignore it. ORP stands for oxidation reduction potential. From the CDC: In case of a fecal incident, close the pool, and CYA levels can no longer exceed 15ppm. 0000005401 00000 n Most commonly, however, cyanuric acid is found in stabilized chlorines dichlor and trichlor. We get it. 0000007392 00000 n Let’s get real here. The left chart is without CYA. Melamine is an industrially synthesized chemical used for a wide variety of applications, such as laminates, coatings and plastics. But do you know of any neighborhood summer pools that can get through their entire season without a single fecal incident? For outdoor pools, that’s a game changer. 0000006269 00000 n Sure, you could have more CYA in the water, but the levels of chlorine needed to accomplish the killing of a disease like crypto would be insanely high. It’s our opinion at Orenda that the CDC’s 15ppm limit—while it is a painful change for many—offers an opportunity for new thinking. As a result, ORP may be lower, even if free chlorine remains the same. We have heard numerous first-hand stories of draining high cyanuric acid pools. At ideal pH (7.4 to 7.6) and cyanuric acid levels (30 to 50 ppm), the cyanuric acid/cyanurate system will not significantly contribute to the buffering of pool water. Because the N-Cl bond is weak, it allows for chlorine to let go of CYA when it has something to oxidize or kill. %PDF-1.4 %���� So what will the pool chemical controller do when the ORP levels are too low? For example, a service tech had a homeowner with a pool over 100ppm CYA. We need to remove cyanurate alkalinity from total alkalinity to find the carbonate alkalinity. Water. We did some research. A chlorine stabilizer is needed, otherwise you will be using (and losing) chlorine all day, every day.
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